What is the Hollow Earth theory?

Amongst many theories the world has come across, there is one known as the Hollow Earth Theory. The Hollow Earth theory states that the planet earth is completely hollow from inside. In other words, it consists of unknown interior space. This theory was first proposed by Edmond Halley who was already well-known for many other findings and studies.

However, the theory was disapproved in 1740 by Pierre Bouguer followed by Charles Hutton in 1774. Although the theory was disapproved but it remained the center of attention for many people such as Jeremiah N.Reynolds and John Cleves Symmes Jr. Even then, the Hollow Earth theory could not be proved and therefore, became a part of popular pseudoscience. For many researchers and scientists, the concept of Hollow Earth Theory still remains fresh. Therefore, let us find out how it all began and the progress made over the years.


For centuries, people have believed that there is definitely something existing beneath the earth. Be it the Greeks, Hindus, and Celtics, almost everyone assumes a different theory. The ancient Greeks believed that the Hollow Earth is a place where the souls of the dead reside. However, at the time, since it could not be proved, the theory was nothing more than a myth. Celtic mythology believes that Hollow Earth is a place from where strange creatures would emerge.

Meanwhile, modern science believes that the earth is made of crusts, layers, and hot magma, most importantly nickel and iron. Even though scientists have proved this from time and time again but still some people remain unconvinced. As soon as the concept of Hollow Earth was introduced in the 17th century, several Hollow Earth believers got busy in proving the hypothesis.

The only reason why the theory is alive is because of the renowned scientists of the past who had subscribed to the idea as well. Therefore, while the Hollow Earth theory seemed to be science fiction, the presentations made it look downright logical.

Scientific Basis for Hollow Earth

As already mentioned, Edmund Halley was the first one to purpose the Hollow Earth theory. He had studied both the magnetic fields and gravitational forces of the sun, moon, and earth to conclude his theory. According to him, the planet consists of spherical shells and a series of nests that surround a central core while spinning in different directions. Everything that he knew and was aware of still presented chances of inaccuracy.

Furthermore, Edmund Halley was also off the view that each shell of the planet had appropriate atmospheres to support life. Edmund’s theory remained the center of focus for many centuries to come. It even managed to kick out a theory that explained the earth being just one large cavern, which was impossible of course. Generally, whenever the Hollow Earth theory is discussed, it is believed that there is a small sun existing or rather hanging in the center.

As a result, this creates a favorable environment for life on the earth’s flip side. This vision was supported by many notable mathematicians of the 18th and 19th centuries. However, then again, the sources of these claims were nowhere to be found. Therefore, proving the vision, nebulous.

John Cleves Symmes Jr.

While the concept of Hollow Earth took a few steps back, an individual by the name of John Cleves Symmes Jr. stepped into the spotlight to present his theory. It was in 1818 that he declared that the earth is hollow in his Circular No.1. At the time, John Cleves Symmes Jr. became the most famous and popular Hollow Earth theorist. Taking a close look at John Cleves Symmes’s theory, one could say that it was a simplified version of Edmund Halley’s multi-layered theory. However, there was an exception. Symmes believed that the earth consisted of huge holes in both the North and South poles, allowing access to the hollow interior.

Symmes was so confident about his theory that he decided to go on an expedition. He was sure that of the fact something valuable would be found. Furthermore, he was also off the opinion that the earth was hollow and that it would consist of animals if not humans. While people were terming it science fiction, he called it science fact, and his theory of Hollow Earth did not only apply to planet earth only but the entire universe.

At the time, Symmes was neither supported by the public nor the scientific community but he refused to remain silent. He continued giving lectures and proposing his theory where he went. He even asked the public to force Congress to fund his expedition but to no avail. He continued to campaign until his death in 1849.

Cyrus Teed and Cellular Cosmology

Cyrus Teed came forward with a new concept regarding hollow earth. According to him, the entire universe was placed inside a shell and we were looking upwards from inside. This concept of his was known as ‘cellular cosmology’. He believes that it was an illusion created by the solar mechanism. As a result, the stars were also shining due to it. Although Teed’s idea caught a bit of wind but soon after his death, the idea slightly faded. With time, the Hollow Earth theory was becoming more a fiction rather than a science-related fact or theory. It could be the other way around if sufficient findings were present at the time.

Communication with Hollow Planet

Many argue that if there is something such as a super-race and megafauna existing, then why haven’t we been able to make contact with them? According to some, we already have made contact but institutions have worked collectively to hide the truth from us. This has made many believe the idea that what else could stop us from reaching out to them, considering the technology and information we possess. Regardless of what researchers and scientists need are proofs and evidence. Expeditions suggested by Symmes require a lot of funding and the government will never risk resources if a theory does not have sufficient proofs and evidence to back it up.

Final Word

Concluding, the Hollow Earth Theory remains a mystery. Apart from different scientists and their ideas about the Hollow Earth, there is nothing at hand that could be used to prove the concept. There isn’t any reason to believe that the governments will keep it a secret from the public as what would they gain from it? Only time will tell what becomes of the Hollow Earth theory but for now, it remains a myth.